Samoa joined the Integrated Framework (IF) in November 2006 and undertook preparations for a Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS), which was validated in December 2010. The DTIS was acknowledged in the Strategy for Development of Samoa for 2008‐2012 which also mentioned the subsequent implementation of the EIF process, including funding for priority actions.
Description of the projects (objectives and interventions)
Samoa's multi-year 'Support to National Implementation Arrangements (NIAs)' project was approved by the EIF Board in October 2012. The project aims to enable Samoa to use trade as an effective instrument for development by strengthening trade institutions, enhancing capacities for mainstreaming trade and increasing Aid for Trade (AfT) and its effectiveness in line with the Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda for Action. Through this, the project supports the Government of Samoa to promote trade as an engine for economic growth and poverty reduction.
Samoa is also undertaking a DTIS Update project, implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT), through the Trade, Commerce and Manufacturing Sector Unit (TCMU, as the EIF National Implementation Unit (NIU)). The DTIS Update project kick-started in September 2015 seeks to provide an updated perspective of trade priorities in Samoa and identify key areas/shortfalls that require further strengthening, taking into account the changes in the national, regional and international environment since the last DTIS intervention which was completed in 2010.
Samoa's Trade Sector Support Programme (TSSP) was approved by the EIF Board in April 2014. This project is implemented by the Ministry of Finance, with the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (MCIL) and serves to harness existing and potential avenues for export enhancement, while tackling specific sectors of the Samoan economy. The project will enhance the linkages between supply chains in Samoa, touching upon market development in the agro-industry. Moreover, the project focuses on providing resources for attaining medium to long-term goals in the trade sector with components addressing specific sector policy and governance, tied to manufacturing and linkages to other economic sectors, private sector development and foreign trade.
Main progresses to date
Trade policy and institutional support
The EIF has supported the Trade, Commerce and Manufacturing Sector Plan 2012-2016 (TCMSP), which is the sole national plan devoted to the trade sector. The three main pillars include: increased private sector development; improved regulations; and increased competitiveness and trade.
Samoa's NIAs have been fully set up and are functional. The Trade, Commerce and Manufacturing Coordinating Unit (TCM-CU) has been set up as the EIF NIU, and is responsible for implementing the EIF institutional capacity building project and the TCMSP. The EIF project is implemented through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MoFAT) and the MCIL. As such, the NIU enjoys a high degree of buy-in and is relied upon across other Government agencies and stakeholders.
An inter-ministerial EIF National Steering Committee (NSC), the Trade, Commerce and Manufacturing (TCM) Steering Committee is also in place. The NSC provides guidance for EIF activities in coordination with the Government priorities and is effectively working with key representation from the civil society, stakeholders from the rural and agricultural sectors, airline and transportation, and domestic financial services. There is ongoing public-private dialogue through the TCM Steering Committee and the TCM Task Force. Moreover, contributions from private sector associations and sector specific representatives are sought for input and implementation of the TCM Sector Plan.
An updated National Export Strategy has been completed and approved by the TCM Steering Committee as well as the Capacity Development Actions for the Implementation of the Trade, Commerce, and Manufacturing Sector Plan with support from UNDP. This joint publication by the Government of Samoa and UNDP was part of the Government's ambitious inter-sectorial planning to harness potential trade gains into reality.
The NIU team has benefitted from an EIF organized M&E and Communications Regional Workshop for Asia and Pacific EIF countries held in Bangkok, Thailand in May 2014. The workshop was organized in close collaboration with UN-ESCAP to build up capacity on communications and results reporting.
Trade development/sector support – Improving productivity and connecting Samoan producers to markets
The TSSP aims to develop a trade sector wide programme to improve production systems and productivity, improve market information, use appropriate technology to add value to products, increase competitiveness, and to protect product certification including fair trade. The project is also part of the Government's Stimulus Package Programme, initiated in 2010 as a response to the tsunami that hit the country in 2009 and as part of the recovery challenges caused by Cyclone Evan, which hit Samoa in the final weeks of 2012.
In Samoa, the Government has used the TSSP to leverage 11% of its own budget towards the sector development project while attracting an additional 12% through the Chamber of Commerce.
The TSSP is focused on scaling up collaboration between the largest state owned agricultural producers in Samoa, trade associations, and women's cooperatives in order to add value to cocoa and coconut destined for export. As a result, the Buy Samoa Made Exhibition was launched in New Zealand in November 2013 to connect Samoan goods and services with potential markets and to attract foreign direct investment. After the launch in New Zealand, total exports increased by 11% and a similar initiative was launched in Australia in March 2015.
Taro exports doubled in 2014 compared to the previous year as a result of a revitalized taro industry and a sizeable market share in New Zealand.
The project is also providing support to cooperatives and to export expansion, geared towards unifying production of cocoa and coconut, and achieving greater economies of scale. Moreover, a central component of the project is to empower women through the activities of the Women in Business Development Incorporated, which is dedicated to strengthening village economies in Samoa and addressing gender imbalances.
The project has provided seedlings for re-plantation of cocoa, coconuts and coffee covering 130 acres of land at Samoa Trust Estates Corporation (STEC) Mulifanua Farm Land. Assistance has also been provided to STEC to procure the seedlings and planting tools. Through the TSSP, pilot projects have been developed for community entrepreneurship to develop and promote niche products. Construction of a warehouse is ongoing.
Within the private sector component of the project, the Scientific Research Organisation of Samoa is undertaking work on product development and certification of cocoa and coconut.
Samoa plans to integrate the EIF supported DTIS Update and the TCM Sector Review into its National Development Plans. Plans are also under way to develop a database for export services.
|Outcome 1: Sufficient Institutional and management capacity built in EIF countries to formulate and implement Trade related strategies & implementation plans|
|O1.1 Tier 1 ' Support to NIAs' project completed or under implementation||N/A||N/A|
|O1.2 EIF Country with complete, up-to-date validated DTIS Action Matrices||N/A||N/A|
|O1.3 Level of capacity of NIU to perform fiduciary programme management for Tier 1 project||N/A||2|
|O1.4 Country with up-to date trade strategies||N/A||N/A|
|O1.5 Country with quality trade strategy||N/A||N/A|
|O1.6 Country with quality trade strategy implemented||N/A||N/A|
|Outcome 2: EIF countries mainstream trade into their national development strategies and plans|
|O2.1 Trade in PRSP and/or National development strategies||N/A||N/A|
|O2.2 Existence of productive sector strategies integrating the trade dimension||N/A||N/A|
|O2.3 Functioning public/private consultation mechanism||N/A||N/A|
|Outcome 3: Coordinated delivery of trade related resources (funding, TA etc.) by donors & implementing agencies to implement country priorities following adoption of DTIS Action Matrix|
|O3.1 Availability of an annual rolling implementation overview integrating all trade-related government & donor-supported activities (including gender & environment)||N/A||N/A|
|O3.2 Frequency of government and donor consultations on trade-related matters||N/A||N/A|
|O3.3 UN CEB Cluster activities based on DTIS Matrix priorities in EIF Countries||N/A||N/A|
|O3.4 Country with joint donor initiatives in the trade area (such as need assessment; strategy formulations; programming; pooled funding; M&E; etc.)||N/A||N/A|
|Outcome 4: EIF Countries secure resources in support of initiatives that address DTIS Action Matrix priorities|
|O4.1 Country with implementation plan integrating DTIS/Action Matrix priorities and indicating financing needs to be met through ODA||N/A||N/A|
|O4.2 Country where a Government budget exists for implementation of its trade strategy||N/A||N/A|
|O4.4 Number of projects funded by donors related to the DTIS Action Matrix||N/A||N/A|
|O4.4.1 Amount of projects funded by donors related to the DTIS Action Matrix (Million USD)||N/A||N/A|
NIA Support - Phase 1
Trade Sector Support Programme (TSSP)
In Samoa, despite a high unemployment rate of women, there is a growing recognition and understanding that empowering and engaging women in economic activities is a powerful vehicle for development, enabling to spur national productivity and growth. The EIF programme has been supportive of this acknowledgment, supporting a development model that is in alignment with Samoan values, tradition and culture.
Samoa's sole national plan devoted to the trade sector, the EIF‑supported Trade, Commerce and Manufacturing Sector Plan (2012-2016) was developed from the 2010 Diagnostic Trade Integration Study. Samoa is taking forward the sector's vision with help from the EIF to ensure equitable sustainable livelihoods for all Samoans, to enhance production and income generation opportunities and to maximize the gains from domestic and foreign trade. Assistance has also been provided to develop pilot projects for community entrepreneurship to cultivate and promote niche products, e.g., the Women in Business project, which assists farmers to plant and harvest coconuts to produce virgin coconut oil for the Body Shop in the UK market.
The EIF is also funding the Trade Sector Support Programme (TSSP), which was launched in 2014 as part of the Stimulus Package initiated by the Government in 2010 in response to the 2009 tsunami and to the recovery challenges caused by cyclone Evan, which hit Samoa in the final weeks of 2012. The TSSP focuses on scaling up the collaboration between the largest state‑owned agricultural producer in Samoa, trade associations and women's cooperatives in order to add value to cocoa and coconut (Samoa's traditional crops) destined for export. A central component of the project is women empowerment through the activities of the Women in Business Development Incorporated (WIBDI), which is dedicated to strengthening village economies in Samoa and addressing gender imbalances. The WIBDI's economic empowerment programmes recognize the distinct contribution of women as well as of men in supporting women through taking over their chores within family farming enterprises.
The TSSP has been revitalizing Samoa's coconut and cocoa farms, establishing centralized processing facilities and procuring appropriate technology for the research and development of niche coconut and cocoa value-added products. All these efforts are directed to boost inclusive trade in goods for Samoa and in turn minimize its trade deficit. The TSSP has provided seedlings for re‑plantation of cocoa and coconut trees covering 200 acres of land at the Samoa Trust Estates Corporation (STEC) plantation. Planting of a further 300 acres is already under way, and assistance has been provided to the STEC to procure the seedlings and planting tools and contracting village community groups to conduct maintenance and clearance works required at the farm.
Through promoting use of research and development initiatives especially developed by the Scientific Research Organization of Samoa (SROS), the TSSP has continued to develop new product varieties from coconut and cocoa, which will be transferred to the WIBDI for commercialization once the WIBDI processing warehouse is completed in November 2016. The WIBDI warehouse, 85% of which is funded by the EIF, provides the opportunity to centralize the processes of organic products within an HACCP‑certified environment, which adds value to the products for export to be marketed by the WIBDI. The warehouse will also provide a proper storage space for products ready to be shipped.
The WIBDI has undertaken further practical research and identified Criollo and Trinitario cocoa varieties as the most demanded product varieties by the market as well as by markets for export and has empowered organic farmers to identify and grow these varieties. The WIBDI has also organized two shipments of cocoa to Australia in the last ten months, and other shipments are planned. Australia has thus specifically developed a chocolate bar made from 100% Samoan cocoa beans and has been very supportive of the local community getting involved in the value chain.
For coconut, the WIBDI has secured markets for the organic virgin coconut oil that gets exported to the Body Shop UK, USA, Australia and New Zealand. Production sites have been set up on organic certified farms where farmers are in charge of the daily production, and, in return, they are earning regular incomes, gaining a high value for their coconuts. The coconut production also provides employment opportunities for the village people. The SROS has assisted the WIBDI to scientifically test products and ensure quality conformity, which has enabled the development of organic coconut soaps, insect repellent and coconut‑infused fetau oil, which is highly demanded on the local market.
As one of the project implementers alongside the Ministries of Finance and of Commerce, Industry and Labour, the WIBDI takes a family approach to work within the Samoan culture so as not to create power imbalances within family structures, promoting instead family cohesion and intergenerational transfer of new and traditional knowledge. Working in 183 Samoan villages within family households of over 11,568 people, of which 43% are female adults and 57% are male adults (WIBDI 2015 statistics), the WIBDI encourages women within the projects to take on leadership roles as village leaders, trainers and recruiters. Mothers are also encouraged to pass down traditional knowledge to their daughters in the making of traditional handicrafts.
The TSSP also focuses on strengthening the sector policy so as to enhance private sector participation and manufacturing linkages, which has resulted in the Buy Samoa initiative. As a result of this initiative, Samoa Brand trade shows have been organized and held in New Zealand, Australia and American Samoa showcasing Samoan products. The Buy Samoa Made Exhibition was launched in New Zealand in November 2013 to connect Samoan goods and services with potential markets and to attract foreign direct investment. Consequently, total exports increased by 11% after the launch in New Zealand, and taro exports doubled in 2014 compared to the previous year as a result of a revitalized taro industry and gained a sizeable market share in New Zealand. A similar initiative was launched in Australia in March 2015 by the Samoa Association of Manufacturers and Exporters together with other manufacturers to showcase Samoan products.
Funding is also allocated to the Samoa Bureau of Statistics to enhance and strengthen the reliability and validity of the Trade, Commerce and Manufacturing Sector statistics in order to promote evidence-based policy development and overall impact assessment of TSSP initiatives. Assistance has also been provided to private sector organizations, enabling them to get their members ISO‑ and HACCP‑certificated as well as introducing barcoding for their products.
Plans are under way to continue developing international, regional and domestic trade, especially with the recent graduation from Least Developed Country (LDC) status (2014) and accession to the WTO in 2012. To build long-term sustainability, Samoa has continued to take steps to develop a holistic Government approach on policy development and sector‑wide strategies through a series of sector plans anchored to sector steering committees.
Going forward, supporting local skills development and technical know-how as well as attracting wider backing from partners will be critical for the inclusive trade agenda in Samoa to take off to new heights. The EIF is continuing to provide post-graduation support to achieve inclusive economic development in Samoa.
“We support people who really want to help themselves, the determined people who have a vision for their families. We have learned over years that the key to successful ventures in Samoa is working with the family unit.” Ms Adimaimalaga Tafuna’i, WIBDI Co-founder and Executive Director.